Basic Linux Shell commands
|Written by Michael D.|
When opening a shell, your will be logged in with your active account to your home directory (this is usually in /home/user_name).
Note that every command has lots of options available. To see all the manual pages for the specific command, simply type "man <command>". It is important to understand that under Linux operating systems, commands are case-sensitive. This means that "A" is different from "a".
To go through the file system, use:
- pwd - Prints out on the screen the working directory (eg /etc/ssh)
- find <search_criteria> (used for filenames)
- more <filename> - will display a file page by page
They usually mount automatically, but you could end-up in the situation where you must do it manually.
This number is required to stop a service or application. Use kill <PID> to stop a task.
- top - works somehow like the Task manager in Windows. It shows up the system resources, the processes running, average load, etc. Useful is top -d <delay> - sets up the refresh period. You can put any value from .1 (10 ms) to 100 (100 seconds) or even greater.
- uptime will display the system's uptime and the load average for that moment, 5 minutes and 15 minutes in the past.
Usually, the load average is calculated as the percent of system resources (processor, RAM, harddisk I/O, network load) used at that moment. 0.37 means that 37% was used. A greater value like 2.35 means that the system had to que some data because it should be 235% faster to compute all without problems. Anyhow, this can be different from distribution to distribution.
- free - will display information on system's memory
- ifconfig <interface_name> - view detailed information about your network interfaces; generally your ethernet network interface will be named eth0. You can also set up the network settings like ip address or so by using this command (see man ifconfig). If something goes wrong, you can also stop/start the interface by using ifconfig <interface_name> up/down
- passwd - enables you to change your password (passwd own_user or others if you are logged in as root)
- useradd - enables to add a new user (see man useradd)
Anywhere you are, you cand use the TAB key to autocomplete a filename or command. This will be usefull when getting used to the commands available. You can also hit up arrow and down arrow to scroll through the history of the commands you entered.
To exit the shell type exit or logout.
written by satyen bhama , July 17, 2007
How do u find out the maximun Segment Size (MSS), how it is related to MTU.
written by Senthil , September 14, 2007
What is means in sed command using linux? Explain with Example.
written by Kanwar Singh , June 09, 2008
I have created macro on the linux server which convert word to pdf file. When i use the system cammand on the linux server it works fine.
But when i use same cammand from the php script to run that macro it does not work.
Basic shell cammands are working like ls,whoami etc.
Please me know what should i do to run macro throgh php shell script?
written by Vijaykumar.d , June 14, 2008
IAM FRESHER IN LINUX .KINDLY FORWARD BASIC LINUX COMMANDS AND LINUX RELEATED TO MY MAIL ID.
written by kalaimani , March 03, 2009
cut -f1 -d: /etc/passwd > dir
written by c.karthick , November 09, 2009
what is the linux shell command for finding one file's(ex. c program file) size of each segment in memory organization.
written by andoy , December 10, 2009
im also a newbie in linux, please send me some tips and basic linux command. tnx
written by aniket srivastva , January 16, 2013
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|Last Updated ( Saturday, 23 June 2007 )|